Soak the rice in cool water for 5 minutes. Rinse until water runs clear.
Place 4 cardamom pods on a cutting board and lightly crush using the flat side of a knife; transfer to a pressure cooker. Add halved onion, garlic head, 4 cloves, 1 teaspoon black pepper, 1 teaspoon cumin seed, salt, sugar, cinnamon stick, paprika, and coriander seeds. Pour in water to cover.
Seal pressure cooker lid and turn heat to high. Cook until pressure cooker whistles once, about 5 minutes. Reduce heat to medium. Wait for 2 more whistles, about 20 minutes. Remove from heat and allow pressure to release naturally, about 10 minutes.
Strain broth into a bowl. Clean out the pressure cooker and heat it over medium heat. Add oil and chopped onion; cook and stir until softened and browned, about 7 to 10 minutes. Add carrots; cook until soft, about 3 minutes more. Add raisins, almonds, and strained rice. Add remaining 1 teaspoon black pepper, remaining 1 teaspoon cumin seed, and remaining clove.
Crush remaining cardamom seed to a powder and add to the pressure cooker. Mix to combine; pour in enough broth to cover the rice.
Increase heat to high and seal the pressure cooker. Cook until the first whistle, 5 to 7 minutes. Reduce heat to medium. Cook for 5 minutes and remove from heat. Let rest for 7 minutes; release the pressure naturally, about 10 minutes. Transfer cooked rice to a serving dish immediately to prevent overcooking.