Combine flour and salt in a large bowl. Cut in butter with a pastry cutter or 2 knives until mixture resembles coarse crumbs. Stir in water, 1 tablespoon at a time, until dough forms a ball. Wrap with plastic wrap and chill for 30 minutes.
Roll out dough into a large rectangle on a lightly floured work surface. Cut into 16 squares. Place 2 tablespoons apple pie filling and 1 teaspoon caramel topping on each square. Fold into triangles and seal edges with a fork.
Heat oil in a deep-fryer or large saucepan to 370 degrees F (187 degrees C). Deep-fry empanadas until golden brown, 3 to 5 minutes per batch. Transfer to a paper towel-lined platter to drain. Sprinkle with powdered sugar.