Heat oil in a large skillet over low heat, gradually increasing heat to medium-high. Add beef chuck pieces; cook until browned, about 10 seconds per side. Transfer beef to a slow cooker.
Combine apple cider, chipotle peppers, lime juice, garlic, cumin, serrano pepper, cayenne pepper, oregano, black pepper, garlic powder, salt, and ground cloves in a blender or food processor; blend until smooth. Pour over beef in the slow cooker.
Stir chicken broth, onion, and bay leaves into the slow cooker.
Cook on Low until beef is fork-tender, 6 to 8 hours. Shred beef using 2 forks.