Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Grease a 10×14-inch baking dish.
Pour peaches and juice into a bowl; stir in lemon juice.
Mix sugar and butter together in a large bowl. Strain the juice from peaches into sugar-butter mixture and stir well. Stir flour, milk, vanilla extract, baking powder, salt, cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves, respectively, into butter-peach juice mixture until batter is evenly combined; pour into the prepared baking dish. Spoon peaches evenly over batter.
Bake in the preheated oven until cobbler is lightly browned and bubbling, about 1 hour.