Preheat oven to 375 degrees F ( 190 degrees C). Place paper liners in 12 muffin tin cups.
Heat olive oil in a skillet over medium-high heat. Remove casings from sausages (if not packaged in bulk) and place in skillet. Break the sausage into small pieces with a wooden spoon as it cooks. Cook until the sausage is crumbly and thoroughly cooked, about 7 minutes. Add bell pepper; cook for about 2 minutes. Remove skillet from heat. Push sausage mixture to one side of the pan and blot up some of the rendered fat with wadded paper towels leaving about 1 tablespoon. Let mixture cool.
Place flour, corn meal, baking soda, and cayenne pepper in a mixing bowl. Whisk until combined.
In a separate bowl, whisk eggs and buttermilk together. Add egg/buttermilk mixture slowly to flour/cornmeal mixture. Add fresh corn kernels, green onions, Cheddar cheese, and reserved sausage mixture. Stir in melted butter; mix just until flour is mixed in.
Divide batter among cups in prepared muffin pan. Top with a few shreds of Cheddar cheese.
Bake until golden brown and a toothpick inserted into a muffin comes out clean, 25 to 30 minutes. Let cool to warm before serving.